Betaine-HCl negatively influenced the gut barrier and ATP content of cells compared to Betafin® S1 natural betaine in an in vitro intestinal cell model
Trial site: DuPont Nutrition and Health, Kantvik Active Nutrition, Finland
Natural betaine has two roles in nutrition. As an osmoregulator it can protect cell enzyme systems and membranes from ionic inactivation during stress 1,2,4,5. As a methyl donor via transmethylation, it is more effective than other potential methyl group donors such as methionine and choline 1,2,4,8. Natural betaine benefits parameters such as bodyweight gain 1, 2, 8, feed utilisation and costs 1,2,8,9, carcass lean deposition 1,2,11 and litter size 10,12, with effects magnified at times of production stress (e.g. heat stress, coccidiosis challenge) 3,4,6,7.
- Betaine hydrochloride (betaine-HCI) significantly (P<0.05) reduced transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values compared to Betafin® S1 natural betaine in an intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) model. Weak tight junctions between cells can lead to movement of antigens across the gut barrier to provoke a damaging and energetically costly inflammatory response.
- Betaine-HCI increased cell inflammation compared to both the control and Betafin® S1 natural betaine groups, asindicated by significantly (P<0.05) higher cytokine IL-8 production. Cytokine IL-8 activates an inflammatory response in immune cells.
- Betaine-HCI significantly (P<0.05) decreased ATP content of the cells compared to the control and Betafin® S1 natural betaine. ATP is crucial to sustain metabolic functions within cells.
Results: Effect of in vitro digested feed samples supplemented with either Betafin® S1 natural betaine (96% betaine) or betaine-HCI (71% betaine) at equal betaine content (2 kg/tonne of feed) on (a) tight junction strength (TEER value) (b) cytokine IL-8 re lease and (c) ATP content of cells in an in vitro intestinal epithelial cell model